Why I No Longer PEE

I don’t like PEE. I have never really liked it. Firstly, because it restricts and secondly because a lot of the time, the very students it is designed to support, just don’t understand what on earth it means. Before I worked in education, I had never heard of a PEE paragraph, I wasn’t taught them at school, didn’t use them at university and yet I am a fairly competent essay writer. I recently read a year 7 essay that my uncle had written in 1960s, not a PEE in sight and would have easily been top marks at GCSE.

Before I trained as a teacher, I was a TA and lost count of the amount of times students would stare at me blankly saying, ‘I don’t get it’ when asked to write a PEE paragraph. And then I taught it, and they still didn’t get it. The amount of times I have read posts on Twitter from teachers pulling their hair out because ‘they can’t write points’. Then ‘they’ probably don’t know what a point is and instead of flogging something to death that isn’t working, then why not actually change the way it is taught?

In 2015 I was intending to go to Researched in Swindon, but at the last minute wasn’t able to. At this time I was teaching PEE, but like many people was just frustrated that they weren’t getting  it, some just weren’t going into enough detail and others just wrote hardly anything, saying it was too hard. Luckily ResearchEd was recorded and I got to see what I actually wanted to see – the brilliant Louisa Enstone talking about her research into stopping using PEE. You can watch the video here:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KVt1RzWbuY

and read about it here:

https://www.nate.org.uk/file/2017/03/NATE_TE_Issue-13_33-36-ENSTONE-FINAL.pdf

 

So, bolstered by these ideas, I went back into my classroom determined to try something new and a few years later, I am completely convinced. PEE is an acronym wholly made up in a desperate attempt to get students to pass, and yet what has happened is that students have become completely dependent on it. I have picked up classes in later years and moved them away from PEE, but they keep slipping back because, along the line, they have somehow come to believe it is the ‘right’ way to write, it is the magic formula – except it’s not. It isn’t their fault, and I’ve taught students who get very nervous and antsy when I try and break the PEE addiction, whilst others suddenly flourish, because they can actually write what they are thinking, and not have to follow a formula.

So the basis is this – there are 3 basic things that we need to consider when we are analysing a text.

  • What is the writer telling us about the character/theme/setting?
  • How do they use language/structure/form etc to do this?
  • Why are they doing this?

These 3 questions get them thinking and allow them to explore ideas. Asking them to write a Point and find some evidence just doesn’t….and explain what exactly? Students can become stuck because they feel like it is a puzzle that has to be put together the ‘right’ way. But it really doesn’t. The 3 questions, for those who worry about exams, cover the basic AOs. If they are answering those questions, they are hitting the assessment objectives. I don’t refer ever to assessment objectives, which I know some won’t agree with, but when you are 15 years old and you have 9 different subjects with different assessment objectives, you can be forgiven for not remembering what each objective is. If I said to you, have you include AO2, you might just nod and smile, but if I ask you if you have thought about how the writer uses language you might be much more confident in your answer. I believe AOs do have their place, certainly at A level where there are less subjects and a more in-depth understanding of exam criteria, there most certainly would be a reference to AOs, but at GCSE it really isn’t essential to students passing; there is no AO test on the paper.

Once there is an understanding of the basic questions, they can then be layered up with more questions. I then add:

  • What do they want us to feel as a reader?
  • How does the writer use key words to show this?
  • How does it tell us something about a time that a text was written in?
  • Why have they chosen that language over other language?
  • Why might they want us to interpret it in different ways?

Or anything else that might fit with whatever we are studying at the time – the questions can be fluid, but always be, what, how and why questions.

 

So what does it mean for their writing? Year 11 are currently reading The Sign of Four. We are reading chapter 4 where we are introduced to the character of Thaddeus Sholto. A basic question we might consider is ‘how does Conan Doyle present the character of Thaddeus Sholto?’

Using the ‘What, How, Why’ questions we first pool ideas and students are encouraged to make links to what they have already read.

Slide 1

Students have a list of the questions to consider, or I might add to them in discussion. Then comes the bit where it makes all the difference – they write up their ideas but have to follow no particular formula, just know that they thinking about What, How, Why in their answer.

Student 1 might be a little less confident and follow what might seem natural – What, followed by How and then Why:

Slide 2

Student 2 however, might think they might want to start with the Why ideas from the planning and lead into the What and How:

Slide 3

Whereas Student 3 has gone for the How followed by the What and Why

Slide 4

Obviously this example uses the same ideas to show that the order they are written doesn’t actually matter, in reality, you start to see much more of a variety in their writing. The point is simply that they don’t need to follow any particular formula, they just need to get their ideas down and write. Allowing students the freedom to express themselves in the way they feel most comfortable means that they do write and they don’t waste time worrying about whether it is ordered correctly. The exact same ideas can be expressed in a number of different ways and sometimes this then leads them down different pathways and ideas that they were too afraid to put in a PEE paragraph because they didn’t actually know where it should go, so didn’t bother.

Whenever I have discussed this on Twitter, there has always been those that suggest that there are those students that still need structure. Personally, I would argue that in many cases it is exactly those students that struggle the most with a PEE structure. The constant ‘fill in the grids’, or ‘match the quote with the point’ tasks, don’t get to the core issue – many just do not fundamentally understand what Point and Explain actually mean. They may understand that evidence is directly from the text, but in an exam situation, when they can’t think of a point they don’t even get as far as evidence, because the PEE structure tells them they have already failed, so they don’t bother.

So hopefully, here is an example that might change your mind. This is a target 1-4 class. The average target is 2/3. But because I’m mardy old rebel, they will all get 4s and above if it kills me…we may come back to this in 2 summer’s time. They have been studying Blood Brothers and we were preparing for our first go at an essay.

Firstly, in this case, we tackled the question itself using What, How, Why – I wrote down exactly what they said:

Slide 5

Then we came up with the first set of quotes together and analysed them using What, How, Why, being careful not to put them in any sort of hierarchy. The discussion about these ideas was much more than the bullet points might suggest, but too much in the way of notes might encourage them to simply copy. I have also been working on emotions and feelings with this group, for various reasons, so that was added.

Slide 6

Then they were asked to write it up as a paragraph, the only thing I asked them to do was think about the connectives they used to show similarity and difference. They were nervous at first and asked for a sentence starter, the sentence starter I gave them was….In Act One…They didn’t ask for anything else after that.

Student 1 went with a What, How, Why structure:

Slide 7

Student 2 started with the Why:

Slide 8

And Student 3 started with the How, leading into the What and Why. Student 3 is a New Arrival to the country

Slide 9

 

I truly believe that if I had asked them to follow a PEE structure they would have struggled because they would have worried that their ideas were not in the right order. Although we have a little way to go, I am personally very proud of them for showing their ideas and thinking – in an exam situation they would have covered all the AOs to an extent and they have all shown that they have read and understood that section of the play. Student 3, in particular would really have struggled without a bit of freedom to just tell me their ideas.

So this is why I no longer PEE (like many teachers quite literally during an average school day). I am completely convinced now that it is not the best way for students to write. I often wonder in fact where and when it was actually invented, when was it decided that student needed this strict acronym to follow? I can also categorically say that it makes marking 30 essays a much more pleasant experience and in higher ability students it has encouraged a greater free-flow of ideas and personal academic style. It hasn’t been without its issues; I have picked up students later in their school careers who really pushed against trying to think in any way but PEE. It also is not used across my department, so when we have swapped about for revision sessions and masterclasses, I have had to explain that they haven’t been taught to use PEE. Other subjects also still use PEE. But I am personally content, after sets of results, that What, How, Why allows a student to think, explore and most importantly, to write their ideas in a way that they are comfortable with.

I have sheets that I have laminated for students whenever they are writing, if they feel they need support. I think it needs adapting further to be even less formulaic, but if you would like a copy it is here

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The Power of Words

Much has been written recently about the importance of a student having a wide range of vocabulary at their disposal. It’s something that I have considered very important for some time, mostly because of a small research project I undertook in 2016, in the last year of the outgoing English GCSE, which proved to me beyond all doubt the effect that words can have on a student’s ability to express themselves clearly, and the ultimate effect that can have on their GCSE results. It’s something that I’ve meant to blog about for some time, because I like to see hard evidence that something does make a difference, and hopefully this might help others to see the impact that it may have.

A bit of background…

I work at a school of just under 2000 in Peterborough. About 54% of our cohort has English as an Additional Language, with over 80 languages being spoken and our number of disadvantaged students is above average. As part of our appraisal process we set ourselves a target for the year, which can be any number of things, but we are encouraged to conduct research within the classroom.

In the academic year 2015-16 we were about to sit the last session of the outgoing GCSEs. I had a year 11 class which had, through exclusions and other issues, managed to become a class of just 15 students. The students were targeted C-E grades. They were a difficult class, some had very difficult backgrounds and issues that the school were supporting with and some were behaviour issues. In fact, in the end 52 hours of English teaching were lost due to fixed term exclusions across the class. They were hard work.

The students were sitting the English Language IGCSE and the Edexcel Cert for Literature, which apart from the poetry anthology was a closed book exam. Despite their difficult nature, they actually really enjoyed the texts that we studied, Of Mice and Men and Romeo and Juliet and knew the plots and characters really well. We had many heated debated about the texts in the classroom, but when it came to writing about them, they really struggled to put into words what they were trying to say. At the beginning of year 11, all students were working at between D and U grades. I had seen Caroline Spalding @MrsSpalding talk at TLT15 about the importance of Word Wealth and the effect that knowing and using a wide range of vocabulary could have on our students, and decided that as my appraisal research project, I would see if focusing on teaching vocabulary could help push them to the C grades that they needed to get them into college or sixth form.

Research

The first place to start was a bit of research, just why was vocabulary so damned important? I won’t go into lots of detail, but there are many places to go to for ideas and information. Daniel Rigney in his book The Matthew Effect provides some interesting insights, the argument here being that those who are word rich will continue to be word rich and those who are word poor will struggle to compete.

matthew

The comment in orange reminded me very much of my year 11 class, and I’m sure many of you have seen that frustration within the classroom.

David Didau also wrote an interesting blog that looks at some of these ideas. The statistics in particular, I found shocking.

didau

No research project would be complete without reading Isabel Beck et al’s book Bringing Words to Life in which the 3 tiers of vocabulary are explained, something I now see in many resources and blogs on Twitter. Having this understanding really influenced the way that I considered the vocabulary I would teach.

Beck 1Beck 2

Reading Reconsidered by Doug Lemov et al, is also a fantastic resource in understanding the practicalities of teaching vocabulary through implicit and explicit instruction. It also allows access to videos so you can see what vocabulary teaching can look like in practice.

lemov

Since I carried out this research, much has been written on vocabulary and Alex Quigley’s book Closing The Vocabulary Gap is a really good place to start when considering how to teach vocabulary.

 

How did it work in practice?

The biggest thing that I decided to do was make them revision guides for the 2 texts, Of Mice and Men and Romeo and Juliet, and give them new vocabulary. They were given vocabulary for character…

curley's wife

slim

julietromeo

and for theme…

OMAMomam 1

But they weren’t just given the words, we talked about the words, we used the words in sentences, they defined the words in ways that they would remember and they were tested on the words. They were also encouraged to use the words verbally in responses and to think constantly about what was ‘a better way to say.’

practice

So what was the effect on their writing? 

Slowly,  but surely, I noticed them starting to slip the learned vocabulary into their writing. They were also encouraged to go back and re-write pieces that they had written earlier, using what they had learned to improve. I also noticed a difference in their demeanour, they were proud of what they knew and were able to express themselves in a new way. There was less of that frustrated behaviour and they were much more eager to try. Learning the new vocabulary had an enormous impact in particular on my 2 most recently arrived EAL students, one of whom grew in confidence hugely by the time they sat their exam that summer.

Example 1

example 1

Example 2

example 2

Example 3

example 3

Example 4

example 4

Hopefully, you can see that the vocabulary started to make their answers sound that bit more sophisticated. These were not academic students, they were students who had barriers that were very difficult to overcome, but in a small way, they had started to change the way that they expressed their ideas. Alongside the texts, we also looked in particular at language for expressing emotion for the Language papers.

What was the impact on grades?

So, the all important question, did it impact on grades and progress? Well, I’ll let you decide for yourself. This is a difficult question to answer, there could be any number of variables, but the only thing that I focused on that year was vocabulary. So the results…

  • For all students in the class, English Language and/or Literature was in their top 2 grades across all subjects.
  • All but 2 students met or exceeded their targets.
  • Of the 2 students that entered secondary below a level 1 from Primary, one achieved C/D (Lang/Lit) and the other D/D
  • One student whose target was a C, achieved a B in Language and an A* in Literature
  • One student whose target was a C achieved B grades in both Language and Literature
  • One student whose target was a D achieved C grades in both Language and Literature

As Literature had been my main focus…

64.29% of students made 4 levels of progress
14.29% of students made 5 levels of progress
7.14% of students made 6 levels of progress

So, I was pleased. It was never going to be perfect, I lost 2 students to exclusion permanently right near the end, but I was really proud of what they had achieved in the end and I can’t help but think that a lot of this was done to the time that we had spent learning vocabulary.

How has this changed my practice?

I now have a clear focus on vocabulary in my lessons. At GCSE students create word banks for characters as we go through texts an they are asked to use these continuously to describe a character’s development, in both written and verbal responses. We also use word banks for each poem.

poem

I try to drop in new vocabulary definitions into lessons, where we can discuss words and how they relate to the topic or theme of the lesson.

emotionidea

I ask them to choose relevant vocabulary and ask them to explain their ideas.

mary

I try to always remember to never assume, particularity with such a large EAL cohort, that students know and understand what words mean and provide definitions when we are reading texts.

aicr and j words

As a department we ensure that students have access to vocabulary for each of our units.

Picture1

 

Whole School Strategies

As a school, we decided to buy into the Bedrock vocabulary learning programme and all students across KS3 have a designated Bedrock lesson that is separate to their English lessons. All students across the school have access. The online lessons teach students root words all the way up to GCSE specific words and tests them pre- and post learning. Although we are only in our second full year of use, we are starting to see a positive impact on student’s writing and understanding.

bedrockbedrock 1

 

Academic writing

Spear-headed by my Deputy Head, Kate Simpson-Holley, the school has a focus on Academic Writing which we teach in form times. We are a vertical-tutored school and in one form lesson a week we have a focus on an aspect of academic language, for example, passive voice, noun phrases, nominalisation or writing in the third person. Students are taught to rewrite using higher tier vocabulary and have an understanding of what they should do to make their writing sound more academic.

 

I’ve written this blog in the hope that it might give a little insight into the impact that a vocabulary focus can have. I never wish to tell others what to do, but give ideas of what you could do or try, if like me, you are always looking for ideas. For me, vocabulary teaching is something that I am working on and is constantly evolving. But knowing a great word always makes you feel good, and using it makes you feel proper clever.

Thanks to year 11 from 2016, who happily consented to their work being repeatedly used as part of the project, ‘ cos it’s proper Science.’ I miss them.

 

“All I need is a sheet of paper and something to write with, and then I can turn the world upside down.” -Friedrich Nietzsche

 

Of Mice and Men revision book

Romeo and Juliet revision book

It’s All Just Fine

Recently, I’ve been struggling a bit. Mostly, it’s the time of year; I find myself staring at my summer maxi dresses in my wardrobe, wondering if they will have been eaten by moths before the sun ever shines again. Spending all your daylight hours at work, is draining for all of us; our bodies crave vitamin D and warmth and summer just seems centuries away.

But that’s not all. I’ve backed away from Twitter a little bit over that last few weeks and haven’t really interacted for a good few days. Because sometimes I think all the people shouting about how brilliant they are is damaging. Sometimes I think that the, ‘you should be doing this’ or ‘you shouldn’t be doing that’ is actually quite wearing. We all work in different schools in different contexts and you know what? What makes us effective as educators is knowing our own context well enough to know what works for us, whilst also being aware that picking up a strategy from another school and plonking it in our own, might not necessarily work. I have extraordinarily high aspirations for the students I work with, just because I do things differently, doesn’t mean I haven’t. I work with Oxbridge candidates down to students with extreme needs who perhaps don’t get the support they need because in some cultures it is too much of a stigma to admit it. I’m KS3 English in my school, to some that might seem low on the leadership scale, but with responsibility for around 1000 students in that key stage, that is more than some are responsible for in an entire school. That’s my context, but it might not be yours, and that’s fine. There are some things we can take from each other, and some things we can’t, and that’s fine.

But the other thing I find slightly worrying is the ‘you can do it all’ attitude. But you’re a woman Becky? And a feminist? Yes, I am but hear me out. I have no aspiration to be a headteacher, sorry but I don’t. My dad and my grandmother were both headteachers, so I do have some awareness of what the job is really like and…no thank you. The highest I would really want to go is HoD because I’m a teacher, I’m a teacher because I enjoy well….teaching. Students have got me through a lot of tough times, the relationships that we build are second to none and the looks on their faces when they feel like they have learnt something new is just bloody well great. Too often we hear things like, ‘But I want to be the one that makes the decisions.’ Well firstly, that’s naivety as to the job itself, but also hints at poor leadership qualities.

It concerns me that there is pressure to ‘do it all’. I have spent the last 21 years as a single parent. I didn’t actually mean to, circumstances and my poor choice in partners just meant that it happened. This year is the first year that my children are both at university…yep, we’ve beaten those single parent stereotypes and I am entirely hopeful that they will earn enough money to put me in a fairly comfortable old people’s home. But, I’m nearly 43 years old and I am exhausted, because well, I tried to do it all.

I had my son in my last year at university, suddenly pregnant and unexpectedly on my own, I had to take him with me some days, this tiny newborn sat in a car seat (this was pre-childcare facilities.) One of my lecturers actually taught once with him nestled in his arm. I was absolutely determined that I should do it all, I couldn’t not, because that would be a failure. So the young son got passed from pillar to post, dragged round wherever I went and I would go to uni during the day and work evenings and weekends…oh and write a dissertation. It’s actually dead easy to take little ones everywhere; they slip easily into your lives because they don’t know any better. Logistically it is hard, but in the grand scheme of things, and with the help of my family, that was the easy bit.

I went on to have a daughter, finding myself with two on my own…I know, I never learn. I worked, trying to make sure that they were always supported and had what they needed. When the youngest went to school, I started work as a Teaching Assistant, then as a HLTA, then as unqualified teacher and finally I trained as a teacher through the old 80:20 GTP programme. But it was as they got older, and actually probably not really until they were both at uni and I could think about it, that I realised the possible effects that my ‘you can have it all’ decisions might have had. Yes, they had learnt that you need to work hard in life to get what you want, yes they had learnt the value of money, yes they both have confidence and adventure and yes, we have a fantastic close relationship. But there are things that perhaps I should have paid more attention to, the ‘you care about the children at school more than us’ comments, the teenage attempts to cuddle up that perhaps I should have recognised as stress, the not doing things with them because there was work to do, or school events. I didn’t spend enough time with them sometimes. Sometimes I think we have a naive opinion that the young years are the hard bit and the older years are much easier, they’re not; they are just as important and becoming an adult human being requires understanding and support at the same level as the child that needs their nappy changing and singing to sleep.

We all know, as teachers, that some of the worst behaved students we ever come across are not the poor students whose parents don’t work, but the privileged children whose parents are at work all the time, throwing material goods at their offspring to entertain them. One of the most poorly behaved students I have ever come across, lived in the biggest house. Some of the children of teachers I have known are often in trouble at school. It doesn’t take a child psychologist to figure out why, we know this and yet sometimes we choose to forget it.

So I guess my point is this, just because we can have it all, should we actually have it all? In our quest for status and promotion do we sometimes forget what really matters? And if we do want it, then we have to remember that it is a very fine balancing act, sometimes, what is happening at home is far more important than what is happening at work. Can we realistically balance that? I think there are times when I should have been a mum above everything else, and there are times when I should have considered ‘me’ so that when they left I wasn’t only left with work. My kids are great and I am dead proud of them. There is still plenty of time for us to spend together and the magic of technology means they are just a FaceTime away. Life isn’t perfect, in my experience it is quite messy and full of unexpected twists and turns, it’s what we treat the humans in our lives that ultimately matters.

But most importantly we should be careful to not consider in all aspects of life that there is one way of doing things. If we choose to use a strategy that works for us in our school and everyone is happy with it, so be it. If we choose not to climb the ladder to the top in our career, because other things are more important then so be it. If we think that we can do it all, then great. It doesn’t make us better or worse people, or teachers.

It’s all just fine.

*Obligatory children photos.

Shiny New Term

 

So we start a new school year, and as ever, we reflect on what worked and didn’t work across the last year. Boy was it a tough year; we were sailing into the unknown, hoping that what we were doing was right. After three days of little sleep, the GCSE results were published. It was all ok. I had two year 11 classes and they had done me proud, in particular, my 1/2/3 and a smattering of 4s class had absolutely smashed it. We had 5s and 6s. I proudly hugged crying students, who were so dumbfounded by their success, that all ‘coolness’ had disappeared. It felt good.

I work in a ‘challenging’ school, with over 50% of our students having English as an Additional Language and with a well above average PP cohort. We have just had the cohort with the lowest points score since 2010 get the highest results. But we can’t just sit on our heels, we have to keep going to work out how to give students the best possible education that we have to offer. But we also can’t burn out. We have to look at ways to make sure that we are all able to stay healthy and sane whilst also knowing that we are doing the best that we can for the students.

I’m not an academic. I’m a teacher who reads and trials ideas and strategies within the context of my classroom, the place where I’m happiest to be. I’ve learnt not to overload myself with new ideas; if I’m overloaded the kids are certainly overloaded. I need to take the things that work, and build on them, and chuck out what doesn’t work and doesn’t matter. I’m a real nitpicker, I dissect everything, and am always looking for ways to get better. So I sat with my exam results this week, and worked out question by question where my students had performed well. I was pleasantly surprised that they were pretty consistent. In fact, their marks for each of the Language papers were spookily close, and if there was anywhere that improvements were to be made, it was the writing tasks on both papers. So some things had worked. So what did I think worked, and what are my plans for the year.

 

Mindset

I become fiercely defensive over my students and I always want each and every one to succeed. When I first started teaching my 1/2/3/a few 4s targets in year 10, I was very aware that many of them felt like they couldn’t do it, that GCSEs were impossible. Many had complex SEN needs, some were EAL, and most were PP – everything that is supposed to be a barrier. But I just told them that we were all aiming for 4s and 5s and we were going to show everyone that we could do it. I kept repeating it. Their end point in my head, was the same as for all other students. I didn’t dumb things down and I never expected less of them, I just sometimes went a bit slower until we had mastered it, I sometimes pushed some of them harder, whilst scaffolding some of them up, but always kept the same end goal in mind. And they believed it. They believed that if they worked hard, they could achieve. We became a unit and on a rainy Wednesday in February half term (my birthday) they turned up for a revision school with a birthday cake for me. They had walked in the rain, with a cake (that got a bit squashed along the way) to come to school in the holiday, because they wanted to do well.

IMG_6308

 

And they did. I’ll admit that I went home and cried on results day because I had seen 6s on results slips. That may not seem much to some people, but some of these children had arrived at school not even having reached a level 1 in their SATs. So I have learned that it is vitally important to keep the same endpoint in mind for all. Not everyone will succeed, and there were a couple that weren’t ever interested in succeeding, but that we are letting students down if we don’t just expect the same from them, because if we only ever work to a 2 because that’s their target, we don’t know if actually they are capable of so much more, and they do appreciate that you keep that faith. That class will forever remind me of that.

 

Retention and interleaving

I started a personal research project with year 10 in the summer term, looking at interleaving and retention. I also used some of the same ideas with year 11, for revision, but focused mostly on yr 10. I wrote about the project here, if you want to see where the initial ideas stemmed from.

Students learnt quotes each week, and were tested on these. The idea was never that I wanted them just to know lots of quotes, but that they felt confident with the text. Their lessons were also interleaved so that they had lessons each week on prior learning and at the beginning of every lesson, students answered sets of questions on a selection of prior learning. They were also encouraged within lessons to connect across topics. So what did I find out?

Please bear in mind that this is a personal research project, there were lots of variables, it was never going to be perfect as research. I only had the previous year to compare with, so I compared how many quotes had been used in the end of year 10 Literature Paper 1 mock, compared to the same mock at exactly the same time the previous year. It couldn’t be directly comparable, the students were of varying abilities, but I wanted to see if learning the quotes meant that they used the quotes. They had. The orange and blue lines are from the previous year. They were using far less quotes in their answer than the grey and yellow lines, which were this year’s students.

graph

But did it impact on their marks? Well yes it did. The tables below show the results from 2016. The pink shows how many quotes they used,  the yellow their exam grade. We fine grade, so C is low, B middle and A high.

Capture

 

I did exactly the same for the 2017 classes. They had performed better overall in the mock and there was a correlation between the amount of quotes used and their exam performance.

Capture 1

 

Now please don’t jump on me; there are a huge number of variables. Maybe my overall teaching had improved, the students’ ability did not exactly correlate, there are still students that can’t be bothered, any number of things that make this all a load of rubbish….and yes I know that the exam board say that quotes don’t matter. But, for me, it was about making sure that the students felt confident with the texts and to have studied and analysed the language well enough to go into an exam and have something to write about. I think it does make a difference and, it is something that I will continue with.

So this is how this half term looks for me. They will do a piece of extended writing fortnightly, alongside interleaved lessons, but with An Inspector Calls as their main focus. Each week the homework leads into the following week. This worked well last year, with a high completion rate, once they knew that they would be tested and use what they had competed for homework in lessons.

plan

For the last half of the summer term, the students had homework booklets that they completed, where everything was designed to lead into the following week. I have slightly changed that this year, so that they are also learning vocabulary relevant to the topics every week, which they will then be tested on. I will also encourage that vocabulary use within lessons. They also have to complete 20 mins on the Bedrock vocabulary programme online every week, as well as completing pages from their Inspector Calls workbook. So this is how this term looks in terms of homework. The initial idea and template has totally been stolen from @evenbetterif

homework

They have a homework booklet where each week looks like this.

homework 1

The vocabulary and definitions are clear. I will have gone through them before they take them home.

homework 2

So we will see how that pans out. I’m adapting for year 10 and they will be taught using the same principles and interleaved lessons. I’m not claiming it will be perfect, but I am trying to encourage retention, confidence, challenge and independence. If there is one thing that the results have shown me this year, is that hard work makes the difference. The students know that if they learn and revise as they go along, it will make a difference at the end, and they are happy to go along with ‘Miss’s Project’ because they can see that it works.

 

Marking

I have 4 GCSE classes, and I need to improve on getting feedback to students quicker. There is no point in them waiting a week to get feedback, it needs to be as instant as possible. Last term I trialled whole class feedback, which worked really well. That is something that I want to continue this year. I also want to get better at live marking, so that as many students as possible get their feedback immediately and act on it there and then. I also want to play about with the idea of multiple choice questions as part of feedback. As part of our marking policy, we require students to either go back over their work, or answer questions relating to their work, but I want to look at how this can be tightened even more, so that it is instant and lightens my workload of an evening. I also very much like the idea of comparative judgement, but that is one for persuading those above me….watch this space.

 

Keep it simple

Lessons don’t need to have flashy ppts and millions of resources. There is such a thing as overload, and in the past I’ve been guilty of it. I’m teaching An Inspector Calls this term with me, copies of the text, some slides with vocabulary definitions, the students’ ideas and a lot of enthusiasm. Let’s see how that goes.

 

I wish you all a happy and productive year. Be kind to yourselves this year, don’t overload yourself with ideas, just because everyone seems to be doing them. Pick something that you think will work and see how it goes. I’ll leave the last words to a student. When it is dark and grey and we are tired, remember why we do this…because actually, in the end, education opens doors.

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That’s another one done, thanks to brilliant people.

 

This was too long to write as a tweet…140 characters is never enough to enthuse about something, but just bear with me.

 

I’ve had a tough old timetable this year, a timetable that for staffing reasons, changed from the original and meant that I had 4 GCSE classes. Not that I mind; I live and breathe GCSE and teaching the new specs gave me something to get my teeth into, to constantly have to reflect and adapt and consider the best next move. It also gave me an opportunity to do a spot of research, something that got the old brain whirring again. And to be honest, who doesn’t love rooms full of opinionated 15 year olds? However, it has been hard work, and this isn’t about me, but the wonderful people who have kept me going this year.

 

First of all, running @Team_English1 with @NooPuddles has been utterly wonderful. In a year we have accumulated nearly 9000 followers, meaning we have nearly 9000 people sharing ideas, resources and just generally supporting each other. Never has this been more needed that in the first years of massive changes at KS4 and KS5. Between all of us, we have dropboxes full of thousands of resources covering anything and everything. Every day I wake up to tweets every day from people asking for help and from those that have stepped in and supported them. A trawl through our followers gives a snapshot of what education is all about: trainee teachers, NQTs, RQTs, teachers that have been teaching for years, Teachers in Further Education, Heads of Department, Assistant Heads, Deputy Heads, Headteachers from both Primary and Secondary, Teacher Training accounts and exam boards. The account has been mentioned in school CPD sessions, exam board training sessions and government meetings. We have had messages from people saying that they had been ready to quit teaching, but they had found us and felt revitalised again. That’s pretty special.

 

And all of this is down to you all, people that interact with us every day, to all of you that understand that the greatest thing that you can do as a teacher is step out of the comfort zone of your institution and look at how others do things. You are people that are constantly reflecting and improving, and are as up-to-date with research, ideas and resources as anyone can be. Because in the end it will make you a better teacher, because we are the brain power of many, and as you collapse onto your sofa with your end of year drinks, pat yourselves on the back, and realise what a fantastic community we have made between us. So thank you on behalf of Nikki and I for going with us on this crazy journey with us, a journey that looks ready to lead into exciting things; @Team_English1 and #teamenglish is a force to be reckoned with.

 

Last year I said personal thank you’s to so many people. This year I think that there are too many to mention. I love you all, and so many have helped and supported me this year, I just can’t possibly highlight everyone, you are just all wonderful human beings.

 

But there are a few that I want to mention personally….

 

@Xris32  @mr_englishteach @DoWise and @HuntingEnglish are absolute bastions of the English teacher blogging world. Every single blog they write, gets me thinking, gives me practical ideas that I can go and try the very next day in my classroom and their subject knowledge is second to none. Not only that but they are all jolly nice blokes, who give up time and energy to support and advise. Hats off to you gentlemen.

 

@dutaut is one of the kindest, intelligent men that you could ever have the pleasure to meet. He is one of the most beautiful writers you will ever come across and his sensitivity and humble nature inspires me more than he can ever know. This year he got me to read The Manual of The Warrior of Light by Paulo Coelho. It was needed just at that moment….like he had sensitive super-powers or something. So thank you JL.

 

Twitter is an odd thing, and edu-twitter can be both a wonderful and negative place to be in equal measure. But I have had the fortune to interact with some amazing people who support and guide in equal measure. Where else really, can you be mentored and advised by HoDs, SLT and Headteachers  from across the country? People who are impartial, but have your best interests at heart and just want to help you get that little bit further. Some people don’t understand why I would bother with Twitter, but that is why I stay; there is nowhere else that you could get that.

 

So to my final thank you…I have had the utter pleasure to meet some amazing friends via Twitter, people who I talk to every day….and I mean, every day. I talk to them more than members of my own family. They have kept me going more than they will ever know. During this exam marking season these people have kept me sane and supported. They make me laugh and smile and hold one another up when it is needed. Ideas suddenly become resources, bad days are made better. We have had tears, tantrums, job interviews, meltdowns, a lot of exam marking and even a labour…yep. So, a public thanks to my wonderful friends: @MrsSpalding @NooPuddles @evenbetterif @TLPMsF @MsMaster13 @Xris32 @Cornishwelsh @ladybarkbark

@RealGingerella @MasalaNatalie @fod3 @heymrshallahan (resourceasaurus)

@amforrester1 and @FKRitson

 

So we’ve done another year. Well done everyone, ‘cos this was a tough one! Across the country teachers await exam results with trepidation, but for now, relax, raise a glass and get some breath back…we’re going to need it.

Love xxx

Why I love Romeo and Juliet

Cover Image courtesy of enotes.com

I’ve seen quite a lot of ‘dissing’ of Romeo and Juliet over the last few days, and can’t help but get annoyed on behalf of the tragic duo. I don’t know if this is a general backlash against the exam question, a question that I, and the students I spoke to, really liked. I understand why some didn’t; the extract was small and relatively lacking in language, but everything that was there could be used for a question on masculinity, from ‘naked weapons’ to thumb-biting, to the use of the respectful ‘sir’ to questioning to checking legal positioning. Plus, if students had learned some of the juicer quotes from the rest of the play, there was plenty more language analysis to be had.

I had a training session with AQA about 3 weeks before the exam, which made me change the way that I taught students how to answer the question. At the session, we were told that examiners would want to see that students understood how an extract fitted into the play as a whole, to consider how the character/theme/idea developed across the play, and that therefore the bullet points in the question were not necessarily evenly weighted. An answer, particularly for the higher grades should focus on the development and this may sometimes mean the focus on the whole becomes greater. For example, seeing it as a development, means that you naturally consider what happen before and after the extract, meaning that the analysis of the rest of the play is bound to therefore be longer. To me, that appears to be something that this week’s question was naturally encouraging. Not a bad thing, as surely it is easier to assess a student’s understanding of the play they have been studying if they show they take a holistic approach. The session also made it clear that the higher grades should show a clear opinion on what they had read and be able to discuss alternative interpretations.

But back to my defence of Romeo and Juliet.

It isn’t an ‘easy’ play at all; it is a play which more than any other Shakespeare I have taught, encourages strong personal opinions amongst teenagers. It is a play that is full of beautiful and intriguing uses of language and switches between language forms. It is a play that every time I read it with a class throws up something different, encourages talk, discussion and strong personal opinions. It is a play with themes and ideas that still resonate with young people today. Obsession, sex, relationships with parents, fighting, dishonour, friendships, to name but a few, and certainly where I teach,  there are those students who will later who go through the process of arranged marriage, for which the play opens up a platform for discussion.

When I hear that the play is being taught to younger students in year 7 or 8, or even as I heard recently, in year 6, I wonder, actually what is being taught? Is all Mercutio’s innuendo being missed out, surely the ‘poperin pear’ and mention of Rosaline’s ‘quivering thigh’ are far too intense for year 7?

But without discussing this sexualisation of women, how do you have an understanding of whether or not you think Romeo’s love is real or not, compared to what was expected of a man in the Shakespearean era? Is the fact that Romeo bemoans the fact that Rosaline won’t take his gold and wants to stay ‘chaste’ being glossed over in an attempt to prove that it is just a wonderful love story?

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And the whole play starts with some incredibly sexual banter. The more astute student in Monday’s exam, would have further referenced the fact that up until the point where the extract starts, Sampson and Gregory had already almost whipped themselves up into a masculine, penis-related frenzy:

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All of this adds to students’ understanding of the time in which the play was written, the social conventions, the idea of gender and masculinity. Students do relate this to today, to banter amongst friends and it encourages them to question why this is, whether it should be and whether things have actually changed.

And what about the misunderstanding between Romeo and Juliet on the balcony and the fact that she seems to either panic, or become angry (depending on the interpretation) that perhaps Romeo is not as she thinks he might be, but instead wants sex. After listening to him mope about Rosaline not wanting to’ope her lap to saint-seducing gold’ the average 15 year old has a pretty solid view on this.

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And then we have Juliet’s soliloquy on the night she waits for Romeo. She is scared, nervous and excited to possess the ‘mansion of a love’ It’s about a ‘winning match’ where she will lose her ‘maidenhood’….and the comparison of this being like ‘an impatient child that hath new robes’ only serves to highlight the youth and immaturity of someone about to take part in the most adult and mature act…and without the support and advice of her mother.

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So Romeo and Juliet is just full of sex, basically. This interpretation goes even further…I’m not sure I would want to take it that far, but it’s interesting nonetheless

http://elitedaily.com/life/culture/romeo-and-juliet-not-romantic/1792993/

I’m teaching the play at the moment to 2 classes of year 10s. One of them is a top set, which has allowed me to really push and squeeze lots of interesting ideas out of them. We have reached 3, Scene 1. They know the basic story of the play, but we have been through and annotated and discussed the language in detail. They have fierce opinions on the characters, and I allow them to discuss and argue with each other, because those personal interpretations are so very important for this GCSE. One of the more interesting arguments from the last couple of weeks concerned this:

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One of the the young men in my class, thought that this just added to the comedy in the scene, that had also included Mercutio’s sexual banter towards the Nurse where he had basically described her as an ‘old whore’…year 7 anyone?

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I’d not really thought about it and asked him why he thought it could be seen as comedic. He said that the fact that he had appeared to be romantic and gushing about Juliet, but at the last minute had told the Nurse to wait for a ladder so he could get up to her room that night. The student thought that it said everything about what Romeo really wanted, and was so ridiculously obvious that it was funny and therefore matched the earlier sexual banter from Mercutio.

We also had much discussion about this section where Frair Lawrence suggests that, ‘young men’s love then lies, not truly in their hearts, but in their eyes’ and ask does he think this is real love? What are his motives for marrying them? What are the Friar’s views on women? What do we learn about Elizabethan society?

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And so to language…obviously we have the conversation written as a sonnet

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Which also happens to be full of religious imagery for students to get their teeth into. I’ve had students consider it blasphemous, or see it as love being as important as religion, or as him trying to persuade her through the use of religious imagery…there’s a hundred and one interpretations.

The play is full of light and dark imagery, death imagery, symbolism, sexual imagery, puns, oxymoron and antithesis and some of the most east to learn lines in literary history (which makes it perfect for a closed book exam) It has a prologue which tells us the story, meaning that the scope for dramatic irony is huge. You can talk about the classic 5 part structure:

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Or you can discuss how it fits into the genre of Greek Tragedy…or in fact how it doesn’t. You can discuss whether you think Romeo is a tragic hero, or of in fact you think that he isn’t

This week year 10 and I looked at Act 3, scene 1 and the language within it. We looked at why Mercutio speaks in Prose. What does it tell us about him?

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We thought about how this showed Benvolio was a calmer and more controlled character than Mercutio, and that Mercutio’s uncontrolled, hectic nature was reflected in the way that he spoke in Prose, which was often at odds with the way others spoke. We discussed how this made it more difficult to work out what he might do next, his speech being as erratic and chaotic as his mercurial nature.

Later in the scene, we looked at how Tybalt changes from blank verse to match Mercutio’s Prose and considered why that might be.

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“It’s a bit like when someone says ‘your mum'” a student suggested. “You do the same because at that point you need to be on the same level, so Shakespeare does this to show that Tybalt feels he needs to match Mercutio.” I’m happy with that.

This then led into a conversation about whether Shakespeare could seriously have written all his plays by himself, because it would take an awful lot of work to create all that blank verse, and rhymed verse and sonnet form….they were thinking and questioning and asking.

What about this bit in the same scene? I got the students to tell me what they thought were the important words in this section

They picked the words ‘my’, ‘me’ and ‘I’, and we discussed what it suggested about his character…the fact that he doesn’t take responsibility and instead blames everyone and everything else, including fate. We discussed how earlier in the scene he had told Tybalt to ‘be satisfied’, but had hinted that there was something he didn’t know and aggravated the situation further. There is so much there to unpick, so much to have a personal opinion on, and I lost count of all the times that they related characters and events to things that they had experienced within their own realm of existence.

I could go on forever, I love this play, and I love the reaction it provokes with teenagers. Do I think it should be taught to year 7? If it is, then much of the actual, important stuff is clearly being glossed over. It is so much more than a love story, it is a comment on gender, it is a comment on patriarchal society, it is an argument as to whether love and infatuation are the same thing. We wonder whether Mercutio’s rants about whether he ‘consort’st’ with Romeo and his utter contempt for women are because he is hopelessly in love with Romeo, or because he hates that he has chosen a woman over his friends…’bros before hoes’ is the year 10 phrase of choice. We question Romeo’s real intentions and we wonder whether Juliet is just desperate for some real attention. We question whether Shakespeare wanted to please Elizabeth by making Juliet a woman who takes control of her life at the end, by deciding to end it all and by facing perhaps the bravest death of all.

My personal opinion is that 15 years old is the perfect time to study this play. It is the time when it means something and the time when teenagers are turning a corner in being confident in their opinions. Will I keep teaching it at GCSE? Yes, I bloody well will, because I think it is perfect for the demands of the new GCSE, it is brilliant for language, themes, ideas, alternative interpretations and personal opinions. It is brilliant for tracking a character/theme/idea across the entirety of a play and I will enthuse about it forever.

But that’s just my opinion…

And now for something a little bit different….

 

 

I currently teach a lot of GCSE classes – 4 in fact, and for a while now have felt distinctly uneasy that the way our curriculum has been set out, does not support real learning and in particular retention at GCSE with 100% exam qualifications.

What do I mean? Well, I have 2 year 11 classes. One group of 1,2,3 targets with a smattering of 4 and the other, for several different reasons,  are 1-7. At the beginning of year 10 they studied Sign of Four, followed by a bit of Language, followed by Romeo and Juliet. In year 11 they studied Poetry, Blood Brothers and then back to revision. The trouble is, despite running after school revision sessions all the way through year 10 and 11, by the time we got to revision….they had forgotten everything. We have a carousel based revision system, students go to the session, not the teacher – the most popular revision session by far? Sign of Four. It really doesn’t take a genius to work out why….they can’t remember it.

Now, I’m not saying that I had never returned to those texts since they had studied them in year 10, but I don’t think that I had done it in a structured enough way, and I also think that it hadn’t been done in a way that meant that they had to engage properly with the texts. Hands up. So, like many teachers across the land, I started to wonder what was the best way? How can students learn and retain the most knowledge, whilst still practising the skills that they need to succeed and stopping this messy confusion of revision at the end?

The first thing that is really obvious, is that the more confident a student is with a text, the better their exam answers are. The more that they have engaged, even in small chunks, the more analytical their answers. So, therefore the trick surely, is to help students feel confident with texts and content? So how do we do that? Well, repetition for one. I have 2, albeit grown-up children of my own and saw all the way through their schooling that the more things were repeated, the more they remembered them. Take small children, they love things being repeated. My 4 year old nephew will watch the same TV programme over and over again, there is something about repetition that makes them feel comfortable. Why was I not thinking about this in my own lesson planning? So by this time we were about to start the Spring term and I needed to think about how I could get revision right for the students.

The first thing that I implemented was this fabulous idea from Rebecca Foster (@TLPMsF) The 5-a-day starter:

https://thelearningprofession.wordpress.com/2016/05/26/5-a-day-starter/

It’s really simple and once you have made a bank, it’s all there ready. It took me about an hour to make a set for a half term, but there was all my starters made. There are lots of versions knocking about on Twitter now, but please read Rebecca’s original post to get a sense of the ideas behind it. This is an example of how I used it with year 11:

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So my year 11 classes have been doing one of these at the beginning of every lesson for a term now and I’ve noticed that their confidence has absolutely soared, particularly amongst my lower ability set, who love the routine of it and actually really enjoy pushing themselves to remember details. They will often say, ‘that’s like in the starter we did’ or cross match something they have been reminded of in one text to another and crucially, I have seen ideas from the starters in their writing. So that for me, has been something that has worked.

The other thing that I needed to get them doing, was learning quotes. Whether anyone likes this or not, it is an essential part of the new GCSE. I was in perhaps the fortunate position of having taught closed-book literature for a few years, and our students had always performed pretty well in it, which makes me wonder whether closed book actually forces students to have a better understanding of the text, but that’s a whole other argument. The way that I have always used to help students learn quotes was a version of the dual coding technique…so along these lines:

Students would learn the quotes for homework and then they were tested on the quotes, the following week. Works really well, students learnt the quotes and again the lower ability in particular thrived on this idea. My only issues here are that a) I’m doing a lot of work and b) I’m giving them the quotes I want them to learn and with a top set year 10 coming on the heels of these, it made me think about giving students more autonomy in the quotes that they learn.

Students also love Kahoot, and I used that to my advantage. So here, for example, students learn the chapter titles for Sign of Four for homework and the following week were assessed using Kahoot. Each student signed in and I could clearly see who had learnt them and who hadn’t…and they loved the competition of it.

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Kahoot Quiz

So year 11 is ticking along, I have seen improvements in their writing using these strategies, but still I had the rumbling sense that the curriculum map was not conducive to helping students to learn, to feel confident enough that when those 8 hours of exams hit them at the end of year 11, they knew everything that they needed to. So my mind turned towards year 10. I have a top set year 10 and a 2-7 group (I ignore 2 targets by the way, everyone in my classes is aiming for at least  a 5.) I had read a lot of ideas and blogs about interleaving, spacing and retention strategies and made it my mission to become more informed. In particular, I have been really struck by the ideas of The Learning Scientists (@AceThatTest) who make all this sound pretty obvious. Their blog is full of useful material, including downloadable material on interleaving, spaced practice, retrieval practice, all of which is useful to teachers, parents and students.

So I was really interested to attend ResearchEd English and MFL in Oxford a few weeks ago, and in particular, hear Amy Forrester (@amforrester1) talk about how she had used research to rise to the challenges of the new GCSEs. Her talk was exactly what I needed to push myself to have a go at implementing what I knew was right. Amy’s research was just what I needed to hear and is well worth a read.  So I decided to properly give this a go and put ideas into practice. First, a bit of research…

I’ve been reading 2 books that are completely changing the way I think. These may be books that many have read, but they are making me reconsider, after 15 years in education, how students learn, and how I can most help them to retain that knowledge.

Over the last few weeks, I have read some great blogs explaining how they have implemented these ideas. The wonderful Dawn Cox (@MissDCox) first got me thinking about how a curriculum and lessons could be designed with the idea of memory and retention at the heart. This is a great place to start with Dawn, but a trawl through her blog will show how she implements ideas within her lesson.

David Didau has written extensively on this subject, both in his book, What if Everything You Knew About Education was Wrong? and on his blog here.

Damain Benney (@Benneypenyrheol) was good enough to point me in the direction of the work that he has been doing, which I found both helpful and fascinating:

https://mrbenney.wordpress.com/2016/07/11/spacing-interleaving-the-testing-effect-and-distributed-practice-the-diet-coke-version/

https://mrbenney.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/trying-to-apply-spacing-in-science/

https://mrbenney.wordpress.com/2016/11/03/optimal-time-for-spacing-gaps/

https://mrbenney.wordpress.com/2017/03/26/revision-practising-what-i-preach-retrievedonthighlight/

After putting out a request on Twitter @MissWood_Towers really helpfully linked me to these that are also hugely useful:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-interleaving-effect-mixing-it-up-boosts-learning/

https://classteaching.wordpress.com/2014/06/12/spacing-and-interleaving/

https://www.tes.com/news/school-news/breaking-views/benefits-spaced-practice-classroom-four-tips-teachers

@judehunton linked me to the Dunlosky article here

I’d also like to thank @ralston_h for the really useful ideas and help that she gave me.

Twitter is a grand place for support when you have an inkling of an idea.

So what have I done, apart from read a fair bit and drink endless cups of coffee? First of all, I completely nicked Kate McCabe’s (@evenbetterif) idea for my year 11s Easter revision.

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Kate skilfully put into practice everything that we had learnt from the ResearchEd conference – short sharp focused tasks. I simply adapted for the texts I taught and gave my year 11s a choice of tasks for each day of the holidays, so even if they did them all, they would only need to spend an hour of their day doing them. The students have really taken to this idea, as their emails in the holidays have delightfully informed me!

Kate’s original document is here….she is a genius at resource making.

And while year 11 are busy revising, my mind has turned to year 10 and what I am going to do now, to boost their confidence in the texts and make sure that they are retaining everything they need to. So here’s what I’ve planned…

I’ve tried to look at how I can interleave this Summer term. Students have already studied Jekyll and Hyde  and have just started Romeo and Juliet. They also did a Language mock in January and will do a Lit Paper 1 mock sometime after half term, probably mid half term when the exams have calmed down, but an actual date is not in place yet. It doesn’t matter if Romeo and Juliet isn’t finished by then, as we will write the mock so that it is an extract that they have covered and they can use what they already know.

So, this is my plan for the term.
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The first half term is fairly simple. The second term, I have taken out the last week for celebration activities etc. and this may need to be changed depending on where the mock lies, but the idea is that they won’t particularly need extra revision sessions, as they will have been returning to the previous text across the half term. So basically they have one lesson a week on something that they have studied earlier in the year. This is how this should work on an approximate lesson by lesson basis.
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Next, I have designed their homework activities to feed into their lessons for the first half term. Each week they will need to get a basic understanding of the scenes we will be studying that week. They will also be expected to learn quotes as they go from what we have studied. One of the tasks they do every week, will also lead into a class assessment e.g the Jekyll and Hyde quotes will lead into the assessment in that lesson, which I have already written, so they are constantly doing things that will lead into something else. They will also complete a Language question a week, apart from the last two weeks, around half term, just so they keep in with the paper, although for some of the language lessons, in the first half term, I will focus on skills that they can use in the paper.
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I then plan to give them a test sheet one lesson ever week where they write down the quotes that they have memorised. They will continue doing their 5-a-day starter questions, they have been doing these all last half term anyway, so know exactly what they have to do. Because of new photocopying limitations, I’ve had to make these smaller, so they have questions stuck in their books that they answer underneath like so:
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So therefore homework’s should lead into lessons, what we do in lessons should feed into homework etc.
So that’s it really. That’s me having a go at starting to put all the reading and research into action. I know there is some disagreement that this is the way forward, but I can honestly say that from what I have read, and from my day to day teaching, I think this is what will support students the most in achieving. Like all of us, the students are always at the centre of what I do and if I need to adapt or change, I will do. Having said that, I think students do need to be challenged, they need to understand that putting in the hard work now will reap dividends later. The new GCSEs don’t allow for last minute panics and ultimately slow and steady will win the race.
My next challenge, is to show the benefits and convince my department that a curriculum that uses, interleaving and spacing would be the ideal…and thank goodness so many out there have research to suggest it would be. I am lucky that I work somewhere that allows me to play around a bit, and trial these things. I’d also like to look at how we assess, look at ideas such as multiple-choice testing and dig much deeper into the idea of threshold concepts and how all this can feed into curriculum design. Yes all this requires a bit of extra work and effort, but if it creates better outcomes for students in the end, it would absolutely be worth it.
I’m just one teacher, in a department of teachers, in a whole profession, but we all have to start somewhere…